Home + About me + E-mail me

Ingram Bromley (1728-1820) : His Life and Times

by Frank William Bromley (1915-1986)

My great great great grandfather - Ingram Bromley - was probably born at Hollingbury Farm, Capel-le-Ferne in the year 1728. His father's name was Ingram too. He came to live at Hougham some time about 1750, but had had connections with the parish since 1745, for, in that year, the Churchwarden paid him two shillings for two foxes' heads. By 1760 he held in Hougham land to the value of £28, the greater part of which was acquired from one Henry Sutton.

When he was 31, he married Jane Sutton, evidently therefore he received some land as a dowry from his father-in-law Henry Sutton. Jane was a spinster aged 22 and the marriage was solemnized at Hougham Church on 22nd January 1759 by the Rev G. Henry Davies, who, by the way, was not the Vicar of Hougham. Neither Ingram nor Jane could write, and both signed the register with an X. Jane died in 1788 after bearing at least eight children, of whom three died in infancy. On 19 May 1789 Ingram, when 61, married again, this time to a widow, by licence, one Frances Andrews aged 41, who also could not write; this time the Vicar, the Rev. Thomas Tournay officiated. Frances died in 1800, and in 1801 Ingram married yet again to another widow - Ann Bean. It appears that Ann survived Ingram, who died in 1820 and whose tombstone can still be seen in Hougham churchyard, on which are also inscribed the names of two of his wives, Jane and Frances, and the fact that he left surviving, by his first wife Jane, one son and two daughters, William, Ann and Jane. Two sons - Ingram and George - had died before their father. Our Ingram had a sister Susanna, who in 1757 married John Tucker in Hougham Church, which marriage was witnessed by Ingram, and in 1790, Susanna, then a widow, married again, this time to Richard Marsh. Susanna's first marriage in 1757 is the first entry in registers of Hougham Church which mentions the Bromley family.

Ingram Bromley, who lived to be 92, must have been a successful man in spite of not being able to write, for it is interesting to note how his holdings of land increased during the years of his life. In 1762 his holding had increased from £28 to £60; he had apparently acquired the land from H Goddard. In 1775 it had increased to £99 by acquisition from William Pilcher. In 1786 it was £111, by acquisition from Stephen Hayward. In 1794 the value of his land is given as £173, the extra being acquired from Jane Belsey - it is interesting to note here that his son, Ingram, married in 1791 Ann Belsey of Northbourne.

In 1803, when old Ingram was 73, he apparently started sharing out his land, as the Bromley holding of land in that year is given as:

Ingram Bromley(snr) £12
Ingram Bromley(jnr) £32
William Bromley £96

By 1816 there is no longer an entry for Ingram Bromley senior and he had apparently transferred his own holding of £12 to one William Morton, who was his son-in-law.
The above mentioned land values are taken from the Churchwardens Account Book (1731-1805). The values in this book do not always correspond with those in the Highways Account Book (1788-1809), for instance in 1788 Ingram Bromley's holding is shown in the latter book as being £204, but in 1803 the values are the same in both books

As to the issue of old Ingram, his eldest son was named Ingram and lived from 1763-1819 and therefore died the year before his father. In 1791 he married Ann Belsey, a spinster of the parish of Northbourne, who lived from 1765-1844. This marriage was witnessed by brother William and his future wife Alice Andrews. There were no children of this marriage. The second son was William (1766-1833) from whom the writer is descended. William married Alice Andrews (1731-1831) in 1793. There was another son George who lived from 1768-1798 and he married twice, firstly to Ann Pilcher and then, within a year of the death of his first wife, to Ann Moon; there would appear to be no children from either marriage. There were two daughters who survived infancy - Anne and Jane. Ann, born in 1770, married in 1789 David Fagg of St Mary's, Dover. Jane, born in 1777, though while still a minor married in November 1794 William Horton of Hougham. This marriage was witnessed by brother George. Jane was apparently fairly active in village affairs, for we find that she witnessed several marriages of Hougham people. One gains the impression that Jane was her father's favourite - he consented to her marriage while she was still a minor and transferred land to her husband William Horton

Ingram lived at Church Farm, not in the present farmhouse but in the original farmhouse, which was what is now the cottage adjoining the present farmhouse. The cottage in Ingram's time extended to the wall at the top of Plough Hill - the part which is missing fell down some 35 years ago in 1918. In this part was the large kitchen on the ground floor and the 'Men's Room' on the first floor. In the front of the house, again on the part that is now missing , was a dormer window overlooking the farmyard. In the kitchen was the old fireplace where the cooking was carried out, and also, by the side of the fireplace, the baking oven. This cottage is very old and in it has been found 'wattle and daub' plastering - the cottage was demolished in 1983. It is probable that in 1784 some improvements were carried out here and larger front windows installed. In 1795, a start was made on the present farmhouse, the front part of which was built first and the back part added later in 1840.

The farm would be practically self-supporting - meat from the farm animals and some salted down for the winter. It would not have been until towards the end of the eighteenth century that the growing of turnips, etc. introduced by my Lord Townshend for winter feeding would have become common. Butter and cheese would be made from the milk produced on the farm, it being very unlikely that much milk would have been sold. The butter would be made in a butter churn - a barrel-shaped affair with a handle. The women folk would have attended to this as well as the cheese-making. Soap and candles would have been made on the farm. Wood would provide fuel for the fires - coal was very much a luxury. The corn was threshed on the farm, at first by a flail, but later by a machine which was housed in a barn and driven by power derived from a horse walking round a circular track pulling a bar attached to a pivot, which in turn drove a spindle providing the necessary drive to the machine. Visits outside the village were rare, and would be undertaken on horse-back; the roads were mere tracks and in winter would be quagmires of mud and full of ruts. It is probable that in Ingram's younger days the road to Dover would be along by the "Three Horseshoes" and over "Stepping Down" - this route was quite possibly part of the Roman road leading from Dover to Lympne. The present road from Dover to Folkestone was not opened until 1783.

Ingram Bromley played an important part in the life of the village; he was Overseer in the years 1763,1772,1780,1781,1790,1813,1814; Churchwarden in 1783-1785 inclusive, 1791-1797 inclusive, and 1802-1806 inclusive. In those days such offices were no sinecure. A Churchwarden's duties were many and varied. He was chosen at the Vestry Meeting, held at Easter. The warden's first duty was to attend the Visitation to be sworn-in. His duties included attending at the Visitation twice a year to report anything amiss or irregular in the parish. Amissness and irregularity were defined as : adultery, whoredom, incest, drunkeness, swearing, ribaldry, usury, hindering the Word of God, defending Popish or erroneous doctrine, disturbing divine service, not communicating at Easter and not attending Church on Sundays or Holy Days. He had to maintain the fabric of the Church, except the Chancel, provide bread and wine for Holy Communion and pay the parish clerk. The Churchwarden's Account Book (1731-1805) shows that, besides church duties, many civil duties fell upon the warden. Payment for the destruction of vermin was one. Authorised by an Act of 1531, such payments were as follows :

one fox's head one shilling  
one polecat fourpence (polecats are no longer seen in Southern England)
one gray's head one shilling (gray was the ancient name for a badger)
thrushes sixpence each  
sparrows sixpence a dozen  

Apparently money was paid out of the Churchwarden's account for Poor Relief, although this would have been part of the Overseer's duties. Another annual payment was gaol money; this was a contribution to the maintenance of the county gaol, authorised by an Act of 1698. Often too money was paid out of the account for expenses incurred at the 'Beating of the Bounds' of the parish. In 1796 £3 was paid out for 'Eating and Drinking' on such an occasion. In 1795 £1/1/6 was paid for the children at the Confirmation. Several times there is an entry

"Paid the quit rent of the Parish House Broadsole 8d"

This refers to a house at West Hougham, situated on the farm at present owned by Mr. Kingsmill, which was divided into two dwellings for the accommodation of the poor of the parish. This was in the days before the parishes combined to build 'Unions'. The term 'quit-rent' was a survival from feudal times and was a small rent paid to the Lord of the Manor, and entitled the tenant to be quit or free from rendering services to the Lord. A very frequent entry is for bell-ropes at 11/6 a time - they must have worn out very quickly, or was 11/6 the warden's 'perks'? Military and Naval victories were always celebrated by a prayer at 1/- a time, paid, we presume, to the Vicar. The Clerk's fees were £1/13/- per year and washing the surplice cost 3/- per year. Bread and wine was purchased three or four times a year at 2/1 a time. In 1731 was purchased a new communion tablecloth for 6/-. In 1734 there must have been extensive alterations at the Church, as expenses amounted to £17/15/-; a large amount in those days. In 1779 the sale of lead from the church realised no less than £31/10/-, and some £32 was spent on repairs. A new church bible in 1748 cost £2/8/-. In 1803 William Horton, carpenter, and Ingram's son-in-law, was paid £40/8/4½ for work to church pews; this amount would obviously have meant extensive work, and it might well have been then that the 'horse-box' pews were first installed, although this would have been rather late, as most churches had them before this date. They were removed from Hougham Church in 1859.
The above-mentioned expenses were met from the Church Rate, which varied from 3d to 6d in the Pound, and was fixed at the Vestry Meeting at Easter and was the Overseer's duty to collect. The annual income averaged about £15. Church Rates were abolished in 1868.

Whilst Ingram Bromley was churchwarden in 1786, the parishioners of Hougham leased to Thos. Payne

"Part of the Commend to Build a Kell for the Yo use of Burning of Lime and was agreed to Rent it for Four Pounds a Year and the said Thos. Payne to Stand all Repairs and to have a Leas of Twenty one Year."

This document was signed by Ingram Bromley - Churchwarden, William Gorham - Overseer, Benjamin Friend, Valentine Andrews, Matthew White and George Andrews, and was witnessed by Thomas Bean, Stephen Hayward and William Bean.

The church at that time was rather different in appearance to what it is now. The familiar towering spire was not there; the tower was roofed with tiles and a small wooden belfrey rose above it. There were no seats in the tower, there was no vestry, some of the roofs had ceilings, there were no stained-glass windows, some of the memorials were in different positions, and the pews were much different.

We can safely assume that during his lifetime Ingram Bromley was at various times Surveyor of Highways. The repair of highways was the responsibility of each parish. This had been so for many years, and had been, to a certain extent, regularised by an Act passed in 1555. The first duty of the parish was to provide, from among its own inhabitants, one or more persons to serve gratuitously as Surveyor of Highways for the ensuing year. The appointment was confirmed by the Justices at their 'Special Highway Sessions'. Originally, all the manual labour, tools and horses and carts needed for repairing the roads had to be provided gratuitously by the parishioners themselves, but later a Highway Rate was levied to pay expenses. The Highway Account Book(1788-1809) at present in the chest at Hougham Church shows account of money received under the heading "An Assessment made for the Repairs of the Hyways in the Parish of Hougham". Although 'Hougham' is spelt in the present fashion in this case, it is often spelt in the old books as 'Huffam'. The disbursements in the book show that Ingram Bromley received money regularly for work carried out, usually £6 per annum, more than he paid as Highway Rate. Most farmers in the village appeared to have been paid various sums for work done to the roads. The work carried out was principally carting stones from the fields and dumping them on the roads. Labour for work on the roads cost 2/- per man per day, and stones were 6d a load. In the two years 1801 and 1802 there was great activity; no less than £102 was spent, and there appear such entries as

Pd for Mark in the Street Low Slip £7/18/-
Pd for digging Ruts £6/4/2
Pd for Writing Low Slip £1/16/6
Eight journeys to Wingham £1/12/-

The "Mark in the Street" and "Writing Low Slip" I know not what they mean! The maintenance of highways consisted of digging out the ruts and putting down flints in the bad places, sometimes the roads were restored by ploughing them up, casting the furrows towards the centre and then harrowing them down to a fairly level surface. In 1804 appears for the first time :

Pd Mr Reynolds for the Turnpike Commission £17/10/-

Such an entry then appears every year. This probably refers to the fact that the parish played a contribution to the Turnpike Trust controlling the new Dover/Folkestone road. Roads ceased to be the responsibility of the parish in 1835.

The administration of the Poor Law was one of the primary duties of the parish. An Act passed in 1601 ordered the Churchwardens and two, three or four substantial householders to be nominated each year as overseers of the poor and imposing upon them the duty of maintaining and setting to work the poor, the funds being provided by:

"taxation of every inhabitant, parson, vicar, and other and every occupier of land, houses, tithes, coal-mines or saleable underwood."

Another Act passed in 1662 was the foundation of the law of settlement and removal, containing the provision that any stranger settling in a parish may be removed forthwith by the justices unless he rents a tenement of £10 or finds security to discharge the parish of his adoption from all expenses it may incur on his behalf. This meant that the poor were almost immobilised, but in 1697 another Act was passed ordering poor persons that they may settle in any Parish upon bringing from their native parish a certificate guaranteeing to remove them if they prove chargeable to any parish. This meant that the Churchwarden and Overseer could apply to the Justices for a Removal Order for any pauper coming to the village to return to his native village. There are in the parish chest at Hougham Church examples of such removal orders. The Overseer regularly paid money to poor travellers passing through the parish who had a pass to travel from parish to parish.

So far as Hougham was concerned, the administration of the Poor Relief was to some extent muddled up with the Churchwarden's accounts - this often happened in other parishes too. In 1800, however, a separate book was started for the Poor Law Accounts, as by that time quite large sums were involved. The poor were having a very lean time, prices were rising due to the French wars and wages were lagging far behind. In 1795 a system known as the Speenhamland System was introduced, whereby the wages of agricultural workers were supplemented by a contribution from the Poor Law Rate Fund. Rural poverty and destitution, with the heavy charge on the parish, was a nightmare for local administrators.

Ingram Bromley was Overseer in 1813 and it will be interesting to see what happened in that year. There were five assessments that year at 6d in the pound, bringing in an income of £497/16/- and with balance-in-hand from previous year and a late payment the total income was £507/15/6; expenses however were £538/17/9.5, so there was "bad with the book" £31/2/3.5. The chief item of expenditure was £400 paid to the Guardian, who was an official appointed by an Act passed in 1782 known as Gilbert's Act. This officer actually paid out Poor Relief. Other items of interest were three items each of £22/8/6 for Gaol Money. £4/4/- to Canterbury Hospital. William Bromley received £11/17/10 for serving the office of Constable - this was for expenses, there was no regular police force until 1829. One item reads

"To Taken Mary Comfort to London   £20"

- for what purpose is not indicated! It was probably the result of a Removal Order. Burying a man cost £2/17/-. A journey to Wingham and Canterbury cost £1/11/6 - the Justices met at Wingham. The accounts for that year are signed by Daniel Crickett - Churchwarden, Ingram Bromley - Overseer, Thomas Walker and William Bromley, and countersigned by Joseph Stewart, who would be a local Justice.
Other interesting items in other years are as follows:

In 1802 "Paid Mr Pain for Carrying Susanna Stoker to the Workhouse 3/-"
  "Pd the Borsholder of West Hougham 7/-"
A Borsholder was an office founded in feudal times and his duties were roughly that of a constable.
In 1803 "Paid for a substitute for Richard Marsh £15/-/-
  and the like sum for Cloke"  
This entry refers to the Militia - in 1757 the liability of serving in the Militia was made the responsibility of the parish. Men were chosen by lot and compelled to serve for three years or each to provide £10 for a substitute. Small owners were discharged of their liabilities by a payment from the rate fund. The management of the parish's contribution to the Militia in both men and money was usually part of the Constable's duties.
In 1807 "Paid for marriage of Samuel Mayers to Mary Claringbould £5/15/6"
What this entry means is that Samuel Mayer was willing to marry the girl who had an illegitimate child (he might even have been the father) for the sum mentioned. This would have been cheaper for the parish than allowing the mother and child to become a charge on the Poor Law. However, as a "Krobobaln(?) Wedding" the Churchwardens attended in state with their staves - their badges of office.
  "Paid Mr. Morise for Vallen Broadsole and Expense 14/6"
  "Received from Mr. Daniel Crickett the sum of £15 for the purchase of land at Broadsole"  
  This disposes of Broadsole and the annual payment of quit-rent.  
In 1808 "Paid for a dinner at the Flying Horse £1/3/9"  
There is no indication what this was for - although parish officers often did treat themselves to a grand dinner. Expenses paid by the parish, of course. The Flying Horse was in Dover and stood on the site of the present Labour Exchange.

The year 1810/1811 was the last year when rates were collected from part of what is now Dover. There was a separate list in the Poor Law Account Book headed:

"An assess made for the relief of the poor of the Parish of Hougham at One Shilling in the Pound. By the consent of the Parishioners In the Liberty of the Town and Port of Dover in the County of Kent".

About £30 was collected from this source at each assessment. Here it should be mentioned that in those days the parish of Hougham extended well into what is now Dover. The boundary went through what are now the College grounds, and was then a farm, up to Durham Hill and then over to Archcliffe. When the ceremony of beating the bounds of the parish was celebrated in 1789, there is an entry in the Churchwardens Account Book

"Gave Castel Going through priory pond 1/-.

I am not sure why in 1811 Hougham stopped collecting rates from what is now part of Dover, but it might well have been in connection with a Dover "Paving Act" which was passed in 1810, this provided for paving, watching and lighting of streets, and its application was extended to parts of Hougham and Charlton.

We have seen that Ingram was very active in Parish affairs and it will be interesting to see what we know of the village at that time. The population was probably between 200 and 300. In 1881, at the first census taken in the country, the population was 306. The vicars during the period under review were Edward Hobbs (1712-1762), Thomas Tournay (1762-1795), William Tournay (1795-1813) and Thomas Morris (1818-1854). All these gentlemen were also Rectors of St James, Dover, and lived in Dover - the present Vicarage at Hougham was not built until 1873 by the then Vicar Mr. Moloney at a cost of £2300 - it is probable that there was a much earlier vicarage somewhere near the Church, for in 1588 the vicarage of Hougham was valued at £6/13/4. Mr. Morris, we know, used to ride a horse from Dover to Hougham and stable it in the tower of the Church while he took the services. This, of course, was before the reconstruction of the tower in 1859.

The Lords of the Manor presided at Chilverton Elms in a mansion built by Peter Nepueu in 1640. This probably replaced a much earlier building, as, after the Norman Conquest, the Manor was held by a family who took the name of Hougham. One of this family, Robert de Hougham, fought with his King Richard I at Aeon in Palestine(?) Another member was associated with Stephen de P?ts, Constable of Dover Castle, 1165-1198. Yet another Richard de Hougham was Prior of Dover Priory, 1350-1351. Nepueu was a Frenchman who came to live in England after the Edict of Nantes, and there is a monument to his memory in Hougham Church. The occupants of the "Elms" during Ingram's lifetime were Robert Lacey up to 1746 - he was Sheriff of Kent in 1739, then Granado Piggott (or Pickett) to 1749, Phineas Stringer snr. (1749-1759) and finally Phineas Stringer jnr. By 1825 the mansion was apparently unoccupied and falling into disrepair.

There were many Churchwardens during the period, but we may mention a few - all prominent people of the parish - Daniel Crickett, John Belsey, William Hatton, Vincent Sharp, Richard Bean, Thomas Harvey, Richard Belsey, Thomas Hatton, Benjamin Friend, John Hopper and Richard Marsh. The principal ratepayers in 1731 were Robert Lacey, Richard Harvey, Richard Hambrook, William Pilcher and William Hatton. In 1803 they were the Bromleys, Richard Marsh, Edward Smith, Benjamin Friend, Daniel Crickett, George Stringer, Jeken Elwin and Thomas Walker.

The village then was a self-contained unit, its affairs controlled by the Vestry Meeting, intimately connected with the Church, and all village officers - Churchwardens, overseers, highway surveyor and constable - were men of the village, and, for the most part, unpaid for their services.

The blacksmith's forge was hard by the Church, in front of Church House, in a building now demolished. In the meadow at the top of Plough Hill, by the side of the present Council house, was a sawyer's pit, now almost filled in.

Newspapers were hardly ever seen, in any case few people could read - the first newspaper of any account was Daniel Defoe's "The Review", first published in 1704. The "Times" was not founded until 1785. Any important news would be announced from the pulpit.

The roads were rough tracks, generally deeply rutted by the wheels of wagons - important journeys were undertaken by horseback.

One of the pasttimes of the period was smuggling, and we safely assume that Ingram Bromley had a hand in it. The headquarters would be at the "Royal Oak", and caves down the cliff would afford temporary refuge until the loot could be removed to the Church tower for final distribution. Smuggling began in earnest midway through the 18th century and particularly after 1796 when Pitt increased the wine and spirit duties. We wonder whether Hougham folk had any contact with the notorious Kentish smuggling gangs, such as the "Hawkhurst Gang", who fought a terrific battle amongst themselves at Wingham. Wines and spirits were the main items concerned, but tea was also smuggled, and was sold at 10/- per pound. A note by the Rev. Orger, Vicar of Hougham 1880-1902 says "That when the ceiling of the chancel was taken down in 1866 two silk handkerchiefs were found resting on it" - probably left by smugglers.

The great enclosure movement of the 18th century probably affected Hougham but little, as most of the land had been enclosed many years previously. The Agrarian Revolution, with the improved farming methods of Coke, Townshend, Tull, Bakewell, and Young must have had their influence in Hougham - we know for instance that in 1764, Ingram Bromley was growing clover for winter fodder.

During the period of Ingram's life, the population of England and Wales rose from 5½ millions to over 12 millions, and this fact, together with the Napoleonic Wars towards the end of his life and the Industrial Revolution, had a tremendous effect on English agriculture. From 1780-1813 there were great strides away from the methods used for hundreds of years - rents rose but profits outstripped them. New crops were cultivated - swedes, mangold wurzels, kohl rabi. New implements came into being - the Norfolk Plough, Tull's Seed Drill, Meikle's Thresher. Agricultural Societies were formed - including one at Canterbury in 1793. The price of wheat rose from 32/5 a quarter in 1738 to over £6 in 1801. The standard of living improved :

"instead of salted carcasses of half-starved oxen, fresh meat began to be eaten by the peasantry and wheaten bread ceased to be a luxury."

In 1798 invasion by the French was expected at any time, and a volunteer force similar to the Home Guard was formed all around the south-east coast, and the local Tax Collectors were obtaining the names of all people in the parishes between 15 and 63. In the first issue of "The Respondent(?)", dated 17 September 1801 is the following entry:-

"The (?) Militia now quartered at Dover, has, within the last fortnight, received a reinforcement of 250 men, from the Supplementary(?) levies of the county; in consequence of which two additional companies are immediately to be formed in that excellent regiment.The strictest measures of defensive prevention continue to be observed at Dover.(?) and (?) piquets(?) consisting of about 200 men are mounted every morning at seven(?) o'clock and continue this(?) office(?) in the morning, and the Castle(?) contains at present six months provisions for two or three thousand men"

We can well imagine the apprehensions of Ingram and his family - very much the same as those felt by his descendants some 130 years later. The winter of that year was a very hard one, the hardest since 1740 when everything was frozen up for thirteen weeks.

We wonder if Ingram ever watched a public execution - the local gallows were on high ground on the left-hand entrance to Tower Hamlets Road in Dover, and the windows of the Black Horse Tavern (now the Eagle) overlooked the site. Or whether he travelled to Buckland Bottom in Coombe Valley where was situated the Dover Racetrack, or whether, when 6 July came round, he went to Charlton Fair.

What of prices at that time? Farm workers wages in 1768 were about 9/- per week, and in 1824 11/9 per week.In 1758 a bottle of port wine cost 1/3, but by 1798 it was 4/9 owing to increased duty. A superfine blue suit cost £4/10/-, a pound of butter 1/3, a pound of beefsteak 4d, a gallon of rum 8/9, a cow and calf £6/10/-, herrings ½d each, tea (smuggled) 10/- a pound, and a ladies black beaver hat with a purple cockade 23/-.

They were stirring times in which Ingram lived, history was made, - the Industrial and Agrarian Revolutions, the American colonies were lost, the French Revolution, Napoleonic Wars, Nelson's victories, statesmen such as Walpole and Pitt. Patronage and intrigue were rife and

"politically and morally the period was corrupt and coarse".

To conclude, a quotation from William Cobbett's Rural Rides describing his journey from Folkestone to Dover in 1823 :

"From the hill you keep descending all the way to Dover, a distance of about 6 miles, and it is absolutely 6 miles of down hill. On your right you have the lofty land which forms a series of chalk cliffs, from the top of which you look into the sea; on your left you have ground that goes rising up from you in the same sort of way. The turnpike road goes down the middle of the valley, each side of which as far as you can see may be about a mile and a half. It is six miles long you will remember, and here, therefore, with very little interruption, very few chasms, there are eighteen square miles of corn. It is a patch such as you very seldom see and especially of corn so good as it is here. I should think that the wheat all along here would average pretty nearly four quarters to the acre, a few oats are sown - A great deal of barley and that a very fine crop."

Much of the land mentioned above on the left hand side of the road was farmed by Ingram Bromley and his sons.


Home + About me + E-mail me